Movement disorders in opioid users observed in the social networks: a systematic review




Ariadna Domínguez-García, Neurodegenerative Diseases and Movement Disorders Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “Manuel Velasco Suarez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Gonzalo Hernández-Armesto, Neurodegenerative Diseases and Movement Disorders Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “Manuel Velasco Suarez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Eduardo Argüelles-González, Department of Postgraduate, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico
Ulises Rodríguez-Ortiz, Neurodegenerative Diseases and Movement Disorders Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “Manuel Velasco Suarez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Mayela Rodríguez-Violante, Laboratorio Clínico de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Ciudad de México, México
Daniel Rebolledo-García, Neurodegenerative Diseases and Movement Disorders Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “Manuel Velasco Suarez”, Mexico City, Mexico
Amin Cervantes-Arriaga, Laboratorio Clínico de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Ciudad de México, México


The significance of social networks in medical education, particularly in the field of movement disorders, is immeasurable. The current trend revolves around the emergence of new-onset pandemics, such as the COVID-19 virus or the rising use of consumer opioids. This phenomenon is evident across social networks, where non-professional videos depicting individuals experiencing abnormal movement disorders, such as upright postures and gait issues, are widely shared. These videos often feature people living on the streets in various locations throughout the United States and other major cities worldwide. The phenomenology of movement disorders involves closely observing patients in the examination room to identify the clinical phenotype and distinguish between hyperkinetic and hypokinetic disorders. This initial step is crucial in the assessment of any movement disorder. Given the limited availability of literature discussing the clinical features of opioid users, our research strategy involved exploring articles in the PubMed database that met the PRISMA criteria for 2020. Specifically, we sought articles addressing the clinical phenomenology and pathophysiology related to movement disorders from 1980 to the present. Our objective was to investigate cases, propose potential theories regarding implicated mechanisms, and explore the role of opioids in the movement circuits within the basal ganglia.



Keywords: Social networks. Phenomenology spectrum. Movement disorders. Basal ganglia physiology. Opioid users.