Beatriz Sanabria-Barradas, Laboratory of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology; Doctoral Program in Biomedical Sciences; Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico
Libna S. Gallardo-Beatriz, Doctoral Program in Biomedical Sciences; Support Services Unit in Analytical Resolution, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico
José A. Palma-Jacinto, Doctoral Program in Biomedical Sciences; Laboratory of Biochemistry and Neurotoxicology, Faculty of Bioanalysis; Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico
Ana L. Calderón-Garcidueñas, School of Medicine. Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico

This manuscript reviews the mechanisms that contribute to the production of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially the genetic and immunological components. Knowing the participating elements and mechanisms are essential to establish preventive measures and look for early markers. The ASD can have subtle or devastating manifestations, and exerting immunomodulatory actions could be useful in the management of these patients. There seems to be different environmental insults that may act as triggers in genetically predisposed subjects; these insults can promote an inflammatory response in which interleukin-6 could participate actively at the level of neural stem cells and progenitors. The degree of involvement in neurogenesis and astrogenesis, and therefore, the observed clinical spectrum will depend on two facts that alter the neural circuits, including the brain region that loses proper input or output connectivity due to abnormal migration of a group of neurons, and the astrocytic survival.

Keywords: Autism. Pathogenesis. Risk factors. Immunology. Genetics.