Josefina Ricardo-Garcell, Neurodevelopment Unit Dr. Augusto Fernández Guardiola, Neurobiology Institute, UNAM, Juriquilla, Querétaro, México
Francia Guadarrama-Celaya, Faculty of Behavorial Science, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, State of Mexico, Mexico
Gloria A. Otero-Ojeda, Faculty of Behavorial Science, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, State of Mexico, Mexico
René F. Rodríguez-Valdés, Neurodiagnosis and Rehabilitation Unit Dr. Moisés López González, Neurobiology and Celular Bioengineering Laboratory, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Juriquilla, Querétaro, México
Liane Aguilar-Fabré, Neurodiagnosis and Rehabilitation Unit Dr. Moisés López González, Neurobiology and Celular Bioengineering Laboratory, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Juriquilla, Querétaro, México
Hebert L. Hernández-Vázquez, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, México
Pablo García-Solís, Departament of Biomedic Research, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, México
Juan C. Solís-S, Departament of Biomedic Research, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, México
Carlota García, Departament of Biomedic Research, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, México
Javier Ávila-Morales, University Health System, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro. Mexico
Hebert L. Hernández-Montiel, Neurodiagnosis and Rehabilitation Unit Dr. Moisés López González, Neurobiology and Celular Bioengineering Laboratory, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Juriquilla, Querétaro, México


There are more than 1 billion people with disabilities worldwide, with 16% of children having some type of neurodevelopmental disorder (ND). In Mexico, 6% of the population presented some disability; however, there is a lack of data on ND in children under 5 years of age. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurodevelopmental alterations in children under 5 years of age in urban, suburban, and rural populations from two states of Mexico. Methods: This was an observational and cross-sectional design study. We included 501 clinically healthy children from 0 to 60 months of age, from urban, suburban, and rural populations from the state of Queretaro (201) and from the State of Mexico (300). Neurodevelopmental alterations were detected through the electronic N-PED system, exploring areas of neurological development of language, psychomotor, and sensory (auditory and visual). The positive subjects were clinically assessed to confirm the diagnosis. Results: A 14.7% prevalence of ND was found, with a significant difference between Queretaro (8.9%) and the State of Mexico (18.7%). Language alterations were significantly different for both states (4.9% and 16% for Queretaro and the State of Mexico, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of ND and language alterations presented significant differences between the two evaluated states.



Keywords: Neurodevelopmental deviations. Language. Psychomotor. Sensory.